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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2019. Vol.38, Iss.1 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Study for Residue Analysis of Fluxametamid in Agricultural Commodities

    Ji Young Kim, Yoon Ju Choi, Jong Soo Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Jung Ah Do, Yong Hyun Jung, Kang Bong Lee, Hyochin Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 1-9

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.5
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    BACKGROUND:

    Accurate and simple analytical method determining Fluxametamid residue was necessary in various food matrices. Additionally, fulfilment of the international guideline of Codex (Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC/GL 40) was required for the analytical method. In this study, we developed Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to determine the Fluxametamid residue in foods.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Fluxametamid was extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned and concentrated with dichloromethane. To remove the interferences, silica SPE cartridge was used before LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry) analysis with C18 column. Five agricultural commodities (mandarin, potato, soybean, hulled rice, and red pepper) were used as a group representative to verify the method. The liner matrix-matched calibration curves were confirmed with coefficient of determination (r2) greater than 0.99 at calibration range of 0.001-0.25 mg/kg. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.001 and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. Mean average accuracies were shown to be 82.24-115.27%. The precision was also shown to be less than 10% for all five samples.

    CONCLUSION:

    The method investigated in this study was suitable to the Codex guideline for the residue analysis. Thus, this method can be useful for determining the residue in various food matrices as routine analysis.

  • Feasibility of Coal Combustion Ash on Acidity Regulation for Agricultural Use

    Sejin Oh, Min Woo Kang, Sung-Chul Kim, Sang Soo Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 10-16

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.3
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    BACKGROUND:

    Coal ashes generated from thermal power plants have been known as beneficial materials for agricultural use because of their nutrient elements. However, there is limitation to recycle them due to their alkalinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness or safety of the coal ashes for their heavy metals on agricultural recycling when adjusted to pH of 5 with sulfuric acid.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Concentration of hydrogen which is needed to adjust pH of coal ash was estimated by using a buffering curve and then the amount of sulfuric acid was changed by the estimation before incubation. Each of fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) was collected from both thermal plants of Yeongdong (YD) and Yeongheung (YH). The pH values of coal ashes increased to 4.76 (from 4.34) after incubation with sulfuric acid for 56 days, closer to the targeted pH. Coal ashes also increased the contents of available phosphorus by 2-fold (165 mg/kg) and 11-fold (1,137 mg/kg) for YDBA and YDFA, respectively, compared to the control.

    CONCLUSION:

    The utilization of coal ash with its acidity regulation would be very beneficial to agriculture sector and further suggest promising environmental safety against heavy metals.

  • Stabilization of Arsenic in Paddy Soils Using Stabilizers

    Min Woo Kang, Sejin Oh, Sung-Chul Kim, Sang Soo Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 17-22

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.9
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    BACKGROUND:

    Soil contamination of As is a very sensitive environmental issue due to its adverse impact on human health and different characteristics with other heavy metals. With public awareness of As poisoning, there has been growing interest in developing guideline and remediation technologies for As-contaminated soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilizing amendments and soil dressing methods on the mobility of As in the contaminated rice paddy soils nearby mining area.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Different amendments were mixed with surface and subsurface contaminated soils at a ratio of 3% (w/w) and monitored for five months. Three different extractants including 0.01M CaCl2, TCLP, and PBET were used to examine As bioavailability in the soil and the concentration of As in rice grain was also measured with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The results showed that all amendment treatments decreased As concentration compared to the control. Especially, coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) treatment showed the highest efficiency of decreasing As concentration in the soil and rice grain. The values of Pearson correlation (r) between As concentrations in the soil and rice grain were 0.782, 0.753, and 0.678 for CaCl2, TCLP, and PBET methods, respectively. Especially, CaCl2 method was highly correlated between As concentrations of the soil and soil solution (r=0.719), followed by TCLP (r=0.706), PBET (r=0.561) methods.

    CONCLUSION:

    Stabilizing amendments can effectively reduce available As concentration in the soils as well as soil solution, and thereby potentially mitigating risks of crop contamination by As.

  • The Environmental Adaptability of Pomacea canaliculata used for Weed Control in Wet Rice Paddies and Crop Damage Caused by Overwintered Golden Apple Snails

    Sang Beom Lee, Sang Min Lee, Chung Bae Park, Cho Rong Lee, Byong Gu Ko, Kwang Lai Park, Seung Gil Hong, Jin Ho Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 23-33

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.1
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    BACKGROUND:

    The golden apple snail(GAS, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) is an invasive freshwater snail. It has occurred 34 years since the introduction of the GAS to the Korea. The GASs have been used recently for weed control in wet rice cultivation. The GASs’adaptability to the environment of GAS has been improved and the GASs devour the young stage of the crops as well as weeds.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    We surveyed the survival area of the snails throughout the country during the winter seasons from 2000 to 2017 and crop damage due to GASs in 2017. Local maximum, minimum, and average air temperatures were monitored daily. The surveyed regions for the survival of the GASs in winters were Gangjin, Goheung, Shinan, Haenam, Gimhae, Haman, Busan, Jeju, and Seogwipo. The survival durations at low temperatures were 12 hours at -5℃, 1 day at -3℃, 2 days at -1℃, 10 days at 0℃, and over 30 days at 3℃. The eggs of GASs were not able to overwinter. The overwintering condition of the GAS needed a water depth of 10-20 cm with well formed mud. Crop damages caused by the overwintering GASs occurred in rice and water dropwort.

    CONCLUSION:

    The overwintering GAS was first identified in Haenam, South Korea 2000 after introduction of the GAS. The overwintering area of GAS expanded to the mid-southern parts of Korea. We propose that it has not yet become a pest to rice or any other crop.

  • Classification of Agro-Climatic Zones of the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil

    Myung-Pyo Jung, Hye-Jin Park, Jina Hur, Kyo-Moon Shim, Yongseok Kim, Kee-Kyung Kang, Joong-Bae Ahn / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 34-37

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.4
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    BACKGROUND:

    A region can be divided into agroclimatic zones based on homogeneity in weather variables that have greatest influence on crop growth and yield. The agro-climatic zone has been used to identify yield variability and limiting factors for crop growth. This study was conducted to classify agro-climatic zones in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil for predicting crop productivity and assessing crop suitability etc.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    For agro-climatic zonation, monthly mean temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation data from Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, USA) between 1980 and 2010 were collected. Altitude and vegetation fraction of Brazil from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) were also used to classify them. The criteria of agro-climatic classification were temperature in the hottest month (30℃), annual precipitation (600 mm and 1000 mm), and altitude (200 m and 500 m). The state of Mato Gross in Brazil was divided into 9 agro-climatic zones according to these criteria by using matrix classification method.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results could be useful as information for estimating agro-meteorological characteristics and predicting crop development and crop yield in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.

  • Effects of Salt Stress on Dry Matter, Glucose, Minerals Content and Composition in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Ju Sung Im, Mi Ok Kim, Me Soon Hong, Mi Suk Kim, Chung ki Cheun, Yeong Eun Park, Ji Hong Cho, Kwang Soo Cho, Dong Chil Chang, Jang Gyu Choi, Jong Nam Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 38-46

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.8
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    BACKGROUND:

    Salinity is one of the main environmental stresses deteriorating qualities as well as yields of food crops. This study was conducted to identify the effects of salt stress on dry matter ratio, glucose content, and mineral content and composition in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Four potato varieties were grown in plastic pots (diameter 20 cm and height 25 cm) with three salinity levels (EC: 1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 dS/m) in a glasshouse. Dry matter ratio, specific gravity, starch, and glucose content in tubers harvested at 90 days after sowing were analyzed. Also, mineral contents (T-N, T-C, P2O5, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) in stem, leaf, and tuber were investigated and statistically analyzed for analysis of variance (ANOVA). Dry matter ratio, specific gravity, and starch content in tubers were reduced in all varieties as the salt concentration increased. Glucose content tended to decrease according to the salt concentration. In ANOVA analysis of mineral contents, there were significant differences in K+ and Mg2+ of leaf and stem, in Na+ of leaf and tuber, and also in Ca2+ of leaf by the interactions of variety and salinity. In the case of K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+, the stem was more sensitively influenced by the salt treatment than the leaf or the tuber. The K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ decreased in leaf, stem, and tuber of four varieties, as the salt concentration became higher. The decreasing level varied according to the varieties. 'Kroda' and 'Duback' maintained relatively higher K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ than 'Atlantic' or 'Goun' under the salt stress conditions.

    CONCLUSION:

    The composition and accumulation of minerals in potato plant as well as dry matter ratio, starch, and glucose contents were significantly influenced by salt stress. The respond patterns were different depending on the varieties and it was related to the salt tolerance among varieties.

  • Development of Selenium Value-added Rice by Organic Selenium Foliar Spray Application

    Dong Wook Won, Sun-Ju Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 47-53

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.6
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    BACKGROUND:

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of organic Se concentration and the number of foliar applications on growth characteristics and Se content in rice.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    A series of multiple foliar applications were performed at ① 3 times (maximum tillering stage + booting stage + heading stage), ② 4 times I (effective tillering stage + maximum tillering stage + booting stage + heading stage), ③ 4 times II (maximum tillering stage + booting stage + heading stage + grain filling stage) according to the development stage. Each set of the foliar application plots was treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 100 ppm of Se and with mixed pesticide (P* + Se 40 ppm) in which the treatment time was the same as that of the treatment 4 times II. The total cultivation period of rice was 184 days. Se contents in rice (brown rice, white rice) were analyzed by ICP.

    CONCLUSION:

    The number of grains per head tended to decrease with increasing concentrations of organic Se in all treatments. However, number of panicles per hill did not show statically significant differences between the 3 times and 4 times I treatments. The grain yield decreased with the 3 times and 4 times II, but there was no significant difference in 4 times I. Se content in brown rice was the highest at 100 ppm Se (5268.64) treatment and lowest at 10 ppm Se (1269.19 μg⋅kg-1) treatment. Se content in the polished rice was the highest at 100 ppm Se (5047.33) treatment and lowest at 10 ppm Se (885.05 μg⋅kg-1) treatment. The higher selenium was treated, the higher Se content was found in the rice (brown rice, polished rice).

  • Environmental Damage to Nearby Crops by Hydrogen Fluoride Accident

    Jae-Young Kim, Eunbyul Lee, Myeong Ji Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 54-60

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.2
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    BACKGROUND:

    Hydrogen fluoride is one of the 97 accident preparedness substances regulated by the Ministry of Environment (Republic of Korea) and chemical accidents should be managed centrally due to continual occurrence. Especially, hydrogen fluoride has a characteristic of rapid diffusion and very toxic when leaking into the environment. Therefore, it is important to predict the impact range quickly and to evaluate the residual contamination immediately to minimize the human and environmental damages.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    In order to estimate the accident impact range, the off-site consequence analysis (OCA) was performed to the worst and alternative scenarios. Also, in order to evaluate the residual contamination of hydrogen fluoride in crop, the samples in accident site were collected from 15-divided regions (East direction from accident sites based on the main wind direction), and the concentration was measured by fluoride (F-) ion-selective electrode potentiometer (ISE). As a result of the OCA, the affected distance by the worst scenario was estimated to be >10 km from the accident site and the range by the alternative scenario was estimated to be about 1.9 km. The residual contamination of hydrogen fluoride was highest in the samples near the site of the accident (E-1, 276.82 mg/kg) and tended to decrease as it moved eastward. Meanwhile, the concentrations from SE and NE (4.96~28.98 mg/kg) tended to be lower than the samples near the accident site. As a result, the concentration of hydrogen fluoride was reduced to a low concentration within 2 km from the accident site (<5 mg/kg), and the actual damage range was estimated to be around 2.2 km. Therefore, it is suggested that the results are similar to those of alternative accident scenarios calculated by OCA (about 1.9 km).

    CONCLUSION:

    It is difficult to estimate the chemical accident-affecting range/region by the OCA evaluation, because it is not possible to input all physicochemical parameters. However simultaneous measurement of the residual contamination in the environment will be very helpful in determining the diffusion range of actual chemical accident.

  • Varying Effects of Artificial Light on Plant Functional Metabolites

    Yang Min Kim, Jwa Kyung Sung, Ye Jin Lee, Deog Bae Lee, Chul Hyun Yoo, Seul Bi Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 61-67

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.7
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    BACKGROUND:

    Many studies on artificial lighting have been recently performed to investigate its effect on agricultural products with good quality. This review was aimed at comparing the effects of artificial light on functional metabolites of the plants that were grown in greenhouses and growth chamber.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    It has been summarized that artificial lighting both in growth chambers and greenhouses caused different functional metabolites patterns depending on light quality. Even though the same light quality was applied, different patterns in metabolites were observed in different plant species. For the same species, supplementation of the same light quality in both growth chambers and greenhouses did cause different functional metabolites patterns.

    CONCLUSION:

    Artificial lighting caused different patterns in functional metabolites of plants grown in greenhouses and growth chambers, depending on the light quality and/or plant species. The manipulation of plant growth and functional metabolites would be possible by engineering the light qualities, but knowledge on proper lighting condition depending on plant species and growth places would be necessary.