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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2023. Vol.42, Iss.4 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Mass Cultivation of Rhodococcus sp. 3-2, a Carbendazim-Degrading Microorganism, and Development of Microbial Agents

    Jun-Kyung Park, Seonghun Im, Jeong Won Kim, Jung-Hwan Ji, Kong-Min Kim, Haeseong Park, Yeong-Seok Yoon, Hang-Yeon Weon, Gui Hwan Han / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 259-268

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.30
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    Rhodococcus sp. 3-2 strain has been reported to degrade benzimidazole-based pesticides, such as benomyl and carbendazim. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize culture medium composition and culture conditions to achieve cost-effective and efficient large-scale production of the Rhodococcus sp. 3-2 strain. The study identified that the optimal media composition for mass culture comprised 0.5% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, 0.15% NaCl, 0.5% K2HPO4, 0.5% sodium succinate, and 0.1% MgSO4. Additionally, a microbial agent was developed using a 1.5-ton fermenter, with skim milk (20%), monosodium glutamate (15%), and vitamin C (2%) as key components. The storage stability of the microbial agent has been confirmed, with advantages of low temperature conservation, which helps to sustain efficacy for at least six months. We also assessed the benomyl degradation activity of the microbial agent within field soil. The results revealed an over 90% degradation rate when the concentration of viable cells exceeded 2.65 × 106 CFU/g after a minimum of five weeks had elapsed. Based on these findings, Rhodococcus sp. 3-2 strain can be considered a cost-effective microbial agent with diverse agricultural applications.

  • Plasmid Sequence Data Analysis to Investigate Antibiotic Resistance Gene Transfer among Swine, Swine Farm and Their Owners

    Yujin Jeong, Sunwoo Lee, Jung Sik Yoo, Dong-Hun Lee, Tatsuya Unno / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 269-278

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.31
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    Antibiotics either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are difficult to treat with antibiotics. Infections caused by such bacteria often lead to severe diseases. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) can be horizontally transmitted across different bacterial species, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of how ARGs spread across various environments. In this study, we analyzed the plasmid sequences of 33 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli isolated from pigs, farms, and their owners. We conducted an antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) with aztreonam and seven other antibiotics, as well as whole genome sequencing (WGS) of the strains using MinION. Our results demonstrated that the plasmids that did not harbor ARGs were mostly non-conjugative, whereas the plasmids that harbored ARGs were conjugative. The arrangement of these ARGs exhibited a pattern of organization featuring a series of ARG cassettes, some of which were identical across the isolates collected from different sources. Therefore, this study suggests that the sets of ARG cassettes on plasmids were mostly shared between pigs and their owners. Hence, enhanced surveillance of ARG should be implemented in farm environments to proactively mitigate the risk of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

  • Environmental Control in the Plant Factory System Influences Year-Round Production of Allium hookeri Leaves

    Jeong-Wook Heo, Jeong-Hyun Baek, Sung-Hyen Lee, Min-Jeong Kim, Chang-Kee Shim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 279-285

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.32
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    The demand for the fresh leaf of hooker chive, which is mainly used as functional roots and contains dietary sulfur or saponin, is increasing, but the leaves are only harvested 3-4 times per year under conventional field conditions. A plant factory system with different light qualities or intensities was applied for year-round production of the fresh leaves. Hooker chive (Allium hookeri) roots were hydroponically cultured under the plant factory with a mixture of blue plus red LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes) and fluorescent lights for 50 weeks. Maximum leaf growth was attained with the 1.5 dS/m EC in the culture medium under the plant factory. The average leaf and shoot numbers of hooker chive grown hydroponically under a mixture of 200 μmol/m2/s LEDs increased by 147% and 140%, respectively compared to those under 100 μmol/m2/s LEDs at the 10th harvest. The leaf length of hooker chive grown under the LEDs treatment with the lowest light intensity significantly increased by 27% compared with the natural light treatment at the 10th harvest. However, there was no significant difference in leaf pigmentation between natural and 200 μmol/m2/s LEDs treatments. Plant factory with the mixture LEDs of blue and red lights can be applied for year-round production of hooker chive fresh leaves to ensure a stable supply of leafy vegetable throughout the year.

  • Growth of Creeping Bentgrass after Application of Microbial Fertilizer Containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae HS-1 and Streptococcus thermophiles HS-2

    Young-Sun Kim, Geung-Joo Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 286-296

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.33
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    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of soil microbial fertilizer (SMF) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae HS-1 and Streptococcus thermophiles HS-2 on the growth of creeping bentgrass. For the pot experiment, the treatments were as follows: no fertilizer (NF), control (3 N g/m2/month), SMF-1 (control+SMF 2 mL/m2/time), and SMF-2 (control+SMF 4 mL/m2/time). For the plot experiment, the treatments were as follows: NF, control, SMFp-1 (control+SMF 1 mL/m2/time), SMFp-2 (control+SMF 2 mL/m2/time), and SMFp-3 (control+ SMF 4 mL/m2/time). In the pot experiment, visual turfgrass quality and the uptake amount of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) were increased under the SMF treatments, whereas the content of chlorophyll (a, b, and a+b) and clipping yield were not considerably different compared with the control. In the pot experiment, the amount of SMF positively correlated with visual turfgrass quality and uptake amount of N and K. In the plot experiment, turfgrass density was increased by 12.9-19.2% under SMFp treatments compared with the control. These results indicated that the application of SMF containing Sa. cerevisiae HS-1 and St. thermophiles HS-2 improved the quality, density, and growth of creeping bentgrass via prompting the uptake of N and K.

  • Influence of the Exposed Length of Rootstock on Vegetative Growth and Productivity of ‘Sansa’ Apple Trees Grafted on M.7 or M.9

    Young Soon Kwon, Jeong-Hee Kim, Dong-Hoon Sagong, Jong Taek Park / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 297-310

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.34
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    M.7 rootstock is moderately resistant to fire blight. However, M.7 is generally too vigorous for high-density apple systems, but it can be grafted onto cultivars that exhibit weak tree growth, such as ‘Sansa’. This study investigated the vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Sansa’ apple trees grafted on M.7 or M.9 rootstocks to assess the feasibility of establishing domestic high-density apple systems using M.7 and to determine the optimum exposure length for rootstocks. Trees were planted with exposed rootstock lengths of 5, 10, and 15 cm. The vegetative growth of apple trees grafted onto M.7 was greater than that of M.9 and vegetative growth tended to decrease as the exposed length of rootstock increased. However, the differences in yield per tree, average weights, soluble solids contents, and titratable acidity due to the rootstock and its exposure length varied. The accumulated yield over a 10 year period and the yield efficiency of M.7 were lower than that of M.9 and the yield efficiency tended to decrease as the exposed length of rootstock increased. When apple trees were grafted onto M.9, biennial bearing and tree vigor weakening occurred if the exposed length of the rootstock was over 10 cm. Conversely, when apple trees were grafted onto M.7, vegetative growth was excessive if the exposed length of rootstock was below 10 cm. Based on the results from this study, the optimum M.7 and M.9 exposure lengths for ‘Sansa’ were 15 cm and 5 cm, respectively.

  • Growth Response and Durability of Landscape of Ornamental Miscanthus sinensis Cultivars to Drought, Rain Fall and Low Temperature Condition

    Ki-Dong Kim, Young-Sun Kim, Jeong-Ho Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 311-323

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.35
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    Miscanthus sinensis Andersson (Poaceae) cultivars exhibit excellent visual appeal as ornamental grasses and adapt well to diverse environmental conditions. This study focused on assessing the growth response and landscape durability of seven popular Miscanthus cultivars (‘Gold Breeze’, ‘Strictus’, ‘Morning Light’, ‘Variegatus’, ‘Gracillimus’, ‘Kleine Fontäne’, ‘Common’) under drought, rainfall and low temperature condition. The test cultivars were transplanted and cultivated on research plots in 2013, with data collected from June 2017 to February 2018. Plant materials were categorized into three types based on the amount of the water lost; group I (‘Kleine Fontäne’, ‘Variegatus’, ‘Strictus’), experiencing the most significant water loss; group II (‘Common’, ‘Gracillimus’); and group III (‘Gold Breeze’, ‘Morning Light’) where the least water loss occurred. The drought resistance index (DRI) remained low as water shortage conditions persisted. The lodged angle underwent more pronounced changes in reproductive growth stage than in vegetative growth stage, notably decreasing after heading. Discoloration patterns were classified into two types: group I (‘Common’, ‘Gold Breeze’, ‘Kleine Fontäne’, ‘Strictus’) and group II (‘Gracillimus’, ‘Morning Light’, ‘Variegatus’) based on the periods of peak duration.

  • Seed Dormancy and Germination Characteristics of Prunus mandshurica (Maxim.) Koehne

    Seung Hyuk Yang, Young Hyun Kwon, Ye Eun Kim, Chung Ho Ko, Seung Youn Lee, Yong Ha Rhie / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 324-330

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.36
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    This study was conducted to determine the dormancy types and optimal germination conditions of Prunus mandshurica seeds. The pericarp of P. mandshurica seeds was presumed to be the reason for their poor water absorption. After the pericarp was removed with a razor blade, germination was observed to be less than 20.0% at all temperatures except at 5℃, suggesting the presence of physiological dormancy. Germination gradually increased at 5℃ after the removal of seed coat, reaching a final germination rate of 86.7% at 14 weeks of incubation. Based on these results, P. mandshurica seeds have a physiological dormancy. When seeds with removed pericarp were subjected to cold stratification, the germination percentage (rate) in the control group was low even at 16 weeks; however, the germination percentages in the 4, 8, and 12-week cold stratification groups were notably high with 93.3, 73.3, and 100.0%, respectively. The control group in the GA3 treatment experiment with seed coats removed showed minimal germination, but at 10 weeks, the germination percentage rose to 98.3% when treated with GA3 at 100 mg/L. Thus, it is necessary to scarify or completely remove the pericarp of P. mandshurica seeds to promote germination. After pericarp removal, it is important to subject the seeds to cold stratification at 5℃ for at least 4 weeks or treat them with GA3 at 100 mg/L.

  • Analysis of Soil and Leaf Characteristics of Pear Orchards with Lime-Induced Chlorosis Leaves

    In Bog Lee, Dae Ho Jung, Pyoung Ho Yi, Seung Tak Jeong, Yoon Kyeong Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 331-337

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.37
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    Physiological disorders in pear fruit are mainly caused by problems during the growing season, such as lack of calcium in the soil, poor drainage, low porosity, vigorous pruning, and excessive fruiting. In this study, soil physicochemical properties and leaf characteristics were analyzed in pear orchards in four regions of Korea where chlorosis symptoms occurred to determine the causes of chlorosis. The color of chlorotic leaves was diagnosed using the naked eye or SPAD and Hunter values. The soil of the chlorotic orchard had a significantly higher soil pH than that of the regular orchard. Although adequate soil depth was not significantly associated with chlorosis, combined with over-fertilization of the soil with lime, it could potentially impair plant iron uptake. Chlorotic leaves had significantly lower iron and calcium contents and significantly higher magnesium contents than those of regular leaves. Therefore, the intensive occurrence of chlorosis during secondary shoot development around June and July when it is hot and humid may be due to impaired iron and calcium absorption, leading to physiological disorders. To solve this problem, avoiding the over-application of lime and applying foliar fertilizers containing chelated iron is recommended.

  • Growth Response of Lettuce after Application of Mixed Organic Fertilizer Containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HSOB-7 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSOB-8

    Young-Sun Kim, Jong-Jin Lee, Sung-Hyun Cho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 338-345

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.38
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    Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. are effective microorganisms that are applied as microbial fertilizers for crops in Korea. Mixed organic fertilizer (MOF) has been used in the Korean organic agriculture to supply nutrients to crops. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MOF containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HSOB-7 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSOB-8 (MOFBS) on the soil chemical properties and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Growth factors of lettuce were higher after applying different formulation types of MOFBS, such as powder and pellet, than those of NF, and not significantly different than those of control (microbe-free MOF). Compared with the control, application of recommended amount of MOFBS (MOFBS 250 kg/10a, MOFBS treatment) and double the recommended amount (MOFBS 500 kg/10a, 2MOFBS treatment) did not significantly change the growth factors of lettuce. After the application of two formulation types or two different amounts of MOFBS, soil chemical properties such as electrical conductivity, organic matter (OM), exchangeable Ca, and cation exchangeable cation (CEC) increased. These results indicated that although the application of MOFBS improved soil fertility including OM and CEC, it did not significantly affect lettuce growth.

  • Enhanced Degradation of Residual Cadusafos in Soils by the Microbial Agent of Cadusafos-degrading Sphingobium sp. Cam5-1

    Jehyeong Yeon, Joon-hui Chung, Han Suk Choi, Young-Joon Ko, Dayeon Kim, Sihyun An, Jae-Hyung Ahn, Gui Hwan Han, Hang-Yeon Weon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 346-352

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.39
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    Cadusafos, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been commonly used against various pests worldwide. Organophosphorus pesticides have shorter half-lives and lower toxicities than organochlorine pesticides. However, excessive use of Cadusafos can increase pest resistance and issues with acetylcholine biomagnification, potentially resulting in human toxicity. In this study, we investigated the effect of a Cadusafos-degrading microbial agent (CDMA) prepared using Sphingobium sp. Cam5-1, which was previously reported to effectively degrade residual Cadusafos in soil. Experiments were conducted under both controlled laboratory and greenhouse field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, CDMA (106 cfu/g soil application rate) decomposed 97% of Cadusafos in the soil in the untreated control after 21 days. Additionally, when CDMA (106 cfu/g soil) was mixed with quicklime, 99% of Cadusafos was decomposed within 3 days. Under greenhouse field conditions, the combined effect of CDMA (106 cfu/g soil) and quicklime was not observed. However, CDMA (106 cfu/g soil) application alone was capable of decomposing 91% of Cadusafos after 3 days. These results indicate that CDMA can effectively decompose high residual levels of Cadusafos in soils under field conditions using a low inoculum rate.

  • Effect of Lignin Biochar Application on Kimchi Cabbage Cultivation

    Han-Na Cho, Jae-Hyuk Park, Jin-Ju Yun, Seung-Gyu Lee, So-Hui Kim, Ju-Sik Cho, Se-Won Kang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 353-357

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.40
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    This study evaluated the effect of lignin biochar on Kimchi cabbage cultivation in an upland field. Each of the inorganic fertilizers (IF, applied at 32-7.8-19.8 kg/10a=N-P-K), lignin biochar (LBC, applied at 1,000 kg/10a), improved LBC (LBC+N, applied at 1,000 kg/10a), and LBC+IF treatments areas were separated by a control (Cn) treatment area. The fresh weight of Kimchi cabbage increased in the order LBC+N > IF > LBC+IF > Cn > LBC treatments, and the length and width of the leaf were ranged from 20.8-25.7 and 13.7-15.8 cm/plant in all treatments. After Kimchi cabbage harvesting in the LBC+N treatment, soil quality improved bulk density, pH, OM, TN, and Av-P2O5 than those other treatments. In addition, the total N2O flux in LBC+N was lower than in IF treatments. Therefore, improved lignin biochar application effectively improves Kimchi cabbage cultivation and can benefit the agricultural environment.

  • Effects of Additives on Greenhouse Gas Emission during Organic Waste Composting

    Byung-Jun Park, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Sang-Phil Lee, Jae-E. Yang, Hyuck-Soo Kim, Seok-Soon Jeong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 358-370

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.41
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    Composting has been proposed for the management of organic waste, and the resulting products can be used as soil amendments and fertilizer. However, the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4, and N2O produced in composting are of considerable concern. Hence, various additives have been developed and adopted to control the emissions of GHGs. This review presents the different additives used during composting and summarizes the effects of additives on GHGs during composting. Thirty-four studies were reviewed, and their results showed that the additives can reduce cumulative CO2, CH4, and N2O emission by 10.5%, 39.0%, and 28.6%, respectively, during composting. Especially, physical additives (e.g., biochar and zeolite) have a greater effect on mitigating N2O emissions during composting than do chemical additives (e.g., phosphogypsum and dicyandiamide). In addition, superphosphate had a high CO2 reduction effect, whereas biochar and dicyandiamide had a high N2O reduction effect. This implies that the addition of superphosphate, biochar, and dicyandiamide during composting can contribute to mitigating GHG emissions. Further research is needed to find novel additives that can effectively reduce GHG emissions during composting.

  • Effectiveness of Plant-Based Attractants in Preventing the Escape of Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) into the Ecosystem

    So-Young Jang, Woo Young Cho, Yun-Su Jeong, Jun Seok Kim, Seong Eun Han, Kil Yong Kim, Gi-Woo Hyoung, Il Kyu Cho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 371-381

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.42
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    The effectiveness of plant-based attractants was studied using large traps, which attracted relatively more snails in agricultural water drainage ditches and rice-cultivating environments, although their effectiveness in rice fields and lakes was limited. The rate began to rise after three hours of observation. Watermelon peel exhibited the highest apple snail attraction rate (13.8%), followed by potatoes (10.0%), and apple peel (8.8%). These values significantly differed from the attraction rate attributed to papaya leaves (F=3.84; P=0.0387). After 24 h, watermelon peel and apple peel indicated a higher rate of attraction (23.4% and 21.7%, respectively), which were significantly different compared with those of papaya leaves and potatoes (F=9.94; P=0.00455). Large bait traps outperformed funnel traps in capturing golden apple snails and trapped a significant number of snails measuring over 1 cm in size. Watermelon peel was the most effective attractant for a large bait trap, followed by apple peel, potatoes, and papaya leaves. On average, 110 snails were captured in the lure net. However, potatoes, apple peels, and papaya leaves caught an average of 93, 80, and 79 snails, respectively. Among the attractants, the lure effect of the snails was not significantly different. The efficiency of large bait traps in capturing snails, regardless of the plant attractant employed, followed the order: apple peel > watermelon peel and potatoes > papaya leaves > melon > Korean melon. Watermelon peel is highly recommended for farmer use, as well as apple peel and potatoes. Utilizing these snail attractants may contribute positively to developing a safe and environment-friendly integrated pest management strategy.

  • Growth Response of Strawberry Seedlings to Application of Solid Chlorella

    Young-Nam Kim, Jun Hyeok Choi, Hyeonji Choe, Keum-Ah Lee, Young-Eun Yoon, Vimalraj Kantharaj, Yong Bok Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 382-388

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.43
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    A liquid-type chlorella (LC) produced by self-cultivation is used for strawberry cultivation by farmers in Korea. This study aimed to investigate seedling growth in two strawberry cultivars ‘Soraya’ and ‘Haruhi’ after applying solid-type chlorella (SC) in the greenhouse for 30 d. The treatments were as follows: Control, LC (0.2% of 1.0 × 107 cells/mL), ¼ SC (12.5 g/m2), ½ SC (25 g/m2), and SC (50 g/m2). Compared to the control, in the ½ SC treatment, dry weight of the seedlings increased at 30 days after treatment (DAT). Phosphorus content in the leaves of ‘Soraya’ seedlings of the SC treatment increased compared to that of the control. At 10 and 30 DAT, photosynthetic pigments including chlorophylls and carotenoids in the seedlings of both cultivars increased with the ½ SC treatment. These results indicate that the application of SC improved the growth of strawberry seedlings and could replace LC.

  • Changes in the Growth and Quality of Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds. ‘Penn A1’) Following Gibberelinic Acid (GA3) Treatment

    Woo-Sung Kim, Tae-Wooung Kim, Young-Sun Kim, Chi-Hwan Lim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 389-395

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.44
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    This study evaluated the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) on the growth and quality of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.). Experimental treatments included a No application of fertilizer and GA3 (NFG) Control [3 N active ingredient (a.i.) g/m2], 0.3GA3 (GA3 0.3 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL), 0.6GA3 (GA3 0.6 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL), 1.2GA3 (GA3 1.2 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL), and 2.4GA3 (GA3 2.4 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL). Additionally, the study included a 1.5N+GA3 experiment with similar GA3 treatments combined with 1.5N a.i. g/m2: NFG, Control (3N a.i. g/m2), 1.5N+0.3GA3 (1.5N a.i. g/m2+GA3 0.3 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL), 1.5N+0.6GA3 (1.5N a.i. g/m2+GA3 0.6 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL), 1.5N+1.2GA3 (1.5N a.i. g/m2+GA3 1.2 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL), and 1.5N+2.4GA3 (1.5N a.i. g/m2+GA3 2.4 a.i. mg/m2/200 mL). Compared to the NFG, turf color index chlorophyll content was not significantly different (p< 0.05). However, shoot length in 1.2GA3, 2.4GA3, 1.5N+0.3GA3, 1.5N+0.6GA3, 1.5N+1.2GA3, and 1.5N+2.4GA3 treatments increased by 0.8%, 10.6%, 5.15%, 8.3%, 13.5 %, and 21.6%, respectively, compared to the control. As compared to the control, clipping yield in 1.5N+1.2GA3 and 1.5N+2.4GA3 treatments increased by 7.1% and 14.3 %, respectively. These results indicated that GA3 application increased shoot length, with the 1.2GA3 treatment showing shoot length similar to the control (3N a.i. g/m2).

  • Molluscicidal Effect of Eco-Friendly Agricultural Substances for Controlling Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata, Lamarck)

    Il Kyu Cho, Woo Young Cho, In Sun Cho, Heon Woong Kim, Seonghoon Hyeong, Jang Hyun Park, Young Sig Kim, Kil Yong Kim, Gi-Woo Hyoung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 396-407

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.45
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    The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) has been utilized as a natural and eco-friendly control of weeds in rice paddy fields. However, P. canaliculata can damage other crops. In this study, the effectiveness of plant extracts from various natural sources that are reportedly effective against pests in the control of P. canaliculata was investigated. The four plant extracts were effective against P. canaliculata and ranked in descending order as green tea seed (Camellia sinensis) > root of red spider lily (Lycoris radiata) > leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) > root of sophora (Sophora flavescens). The mortality rate of P. canaliculata was increased using 200 to 2000 mg/kg of green tea seed powder. However, shrubby sophora root extract did not significantly increase the mortality rate. The LC50 and LC90 of green tea seed, tobacco leaves, shrubby sophora root, and red spider lily root were 900 and 2800 mg/L, 956 and 2320 mg/L, 2162 and 5325 mg/L, and 512 and 1054 mg/kg, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 of ground powder of C. sinensis, N. tabacum, S. flavescens and L. radiata were 248 and 646 mg/L, 403 and 733 mg/L, 409 and 905 mg/L, and 493 and 1141 mg/L, respectively. The findings indicate the remarkable control potency of green tea seeds against the golden apple snail. An organic material incorporating the four plant powders may help control green apple snail in an ecosystem-friendly manner.

  • Comparison of Water Quality and Growth on Leafy Vegetables in Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus) Aquaponics and Hydroponic Culture

    Min-Jeong Kim, Chang-Ki Shim, One-Seong Park, Jae-Hyeong Lee, Jeong-Wook Heo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 408-417

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.46
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    This study aimed to investigate the effects of an aquaponics system utilizing catfish recirculating water on the growth and water quality in lettuce and chicory cultivation. After 60 d of catfish cultivation in the BFT-AP, the survival rate was 96.0% and average weight gain was 178.5 g. The WGR grew by 241.4% and the SGR was 3.0%. A comparison between lettuce and chicory cultivation using BFT-AP and hydroponics revealed significant increases in shoot height, leaf count per week, and biomass of the cultivated lettuce and chicory. The SPAD values also increased significantly by 15.4-43.3%. Water quality analysis of the BFT-AP systems and crop cultivation beds showed significant differences, except for K and Na. The average NO3 concentration in the sediment pond was significantly higher at 45.3±1.0. Comparison of water temperature, pH, EC, DO, and ORP in the BFT-AP system and crop cultivation beds revealed similar monthly water temperatures from July to September. The pH in the catfish culture pond was 0.3-1.2 lower than that in the crop cultivation beds, and the EC was approximately 0.01-0.03 dS/m lower in the catfish culture pond than the crop cultivation beds. The monthly average ORP in the catfish culture bed steadily increased to 479.9 mV in October. Bacillus velezensis (AFB2-2) and Chlorella fusca (CF) were applied to the biological activation bed; the population density of CF showed a continuous increase, whereas that of AFB2-2 decreased after 15 d and gradually increased thereafter. Thus, the application of the recirculating aquaponics cultivation technology with catfish (BFT) enhances catfish cultivation and promotes the growth of lettuce and chicory. Therefore, it is considered suitable for the environment-friendly cultivation of lettuce and chicory.

  • Verification of the Effect of Liquefied Pig Manure on Reducing Nitrous Oxide Generation

    Pyeong Ho Lee, Ji Hyeon Baek, Yeonjong Koo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 418-426

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.47
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    This study focused on nitrous oxide, a major greenhouse gas produced in agricultural settings through bacterial nitrogen oxidation in aerobic soil. Nitrogen fertilizer in farmland is identified as a primary source of nitrous oxide. The importance of reducing excess nitrogen in soil to mitigate nitrous oxide production is well-known. The study investigated the use of liquefied pig manure as an alternative to urea fertilizer in conventional agriculture. Results showed a more than two-fold reduction in nitrous oxide emissions in pepper cultivation areas with liquefied pig manure compared to that with urea fertilizer. The population of Nitrosospira, a nitrous oxide-producing bacterium, decreased by over 10% with liquefied pig manure. Additionally, nirK and nosZ, which are related to the denitrification process, significantly increased in the urea fertilizer group, whereas levels in the liquefied pig manure group resembled those with no nitrogen treatment. In conclusion, the experiment confirmed that liquefied pig manure can serve as an eco-friendly nitrogen fertilizer, significantly reducing nitrous oxide production, a major contributor to the atmospheric greenhouse effect.

  • Methane Production from the Co-digestion of Cattle Manure and Agricultural Residues

    Jae Gyeong Kim, Jeong Min Heo, Xin Zhao, Jin-Kyung Hong, Eun Hea Jho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 427-434

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.48
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    Large amounts of organic wastes generated in agricultural environments such as crop residues and livestock manure adversely affect the environment. Anaerobic digestion can reduce the amount of organic wastes and convert them into energy at the same time. Efforts are being made to further increase the energy conversion efficiency by using co-anaerobic digestion using two or more substrates. Tomatoes, rice straw, cattle manure, and cattle feces (CF) were used as substrates for anaerobic digestion. Each substrate was subjected to anaerobic digestion and the cumulative biochemical methane production potential was measured, and the biodegradability was calculated. Based on the methane production, CF and tomato were further used for co-anaerobic digestion at different mixing ratios. Among the CF:tomato ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1, 1:2 produced the most methane and the synergy index was greater 1 indicating that the co-digestion of CF and tomato improved the methane production. Overall, the results showed that the methane production from cattle manure can be improved using tomato residues.

  • Effect of Continuous Biochar Use on Soil Chemical Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Greenhouse Cultivation

    Jae-Hyuk Park, Dong-Wook Kim, Se-Won Kang, Ju-Sik Cho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 435-443

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.49
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    Global concern over climate change, driven by greenhouse gas emissions, has prompted widespread interest in sustainable solutions. In the agricultural sector, biochar has emerged as a focal point for mitigating these emissions. This study investigated the impact of continuous biochar application on CO2 and N2O emissions during the spring cabbage cultivation period. Greenhouse gas emissions in the biochar treatment groups (soils treated with 1, 3, and 5 tons/ha of rice husk biochar) were compared to those in the control group without biochar. During the spring cabbage cultivation period in 2022, the total CO2 emissions were in the range of 71.6-119.0 g/m2day, and in 2023, with continuous biochar application, they were in the range of 71.6-102.1 g/m2day. The total emissions of N2O in 2022 and 2023 were in the range of 11.7-23.7 and 7.8-19.9 g/m2day, respectively. Overall, greenhouse gas emissions decreased after biochar treatment, confirming the positive influence of biochar on mitigating greenhouse gas release from the soil. Nevertheless, further research over an extended period exceeding five years is deemed essential to delve into the specific mechanisms behind these observed changes and to assess the long-term sustainability of biochar’s impact on greenhouse gas dynamics in agricultural settings.

  • Development of Gaseous Pollutant Emission Factor by Incineration of Barley & Wheat among Agricultural Residues

    Min-Wook Kim, Joon-Young Roh, Ji-Yun Woo, Dong-Eun Lee, Sung-Chang Hong, Seung-Jin Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 444-449

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.50
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    The current study involved the calculation of air pollutant emission factors (EFs) generated from the incineration of agricultural residues. The process included sample collection, weight measurement, moisture measurement, incineration system configuration, and concentration measurement. The average CO emission factor of gaseous air pollutants from the incineration of barley and wheat agricultural residues was calculated as 0.08289 kg/kg and 0.06665 kg/kg, respectively, whereas the average NOX emission factor for barley and wheat agricultural residues was determined to be 0.00518 kg/kg and 0.00185 kg/kg, respectively. In the existing air pollutant emission calculation manual, the EF is presented only for barley. Therefore, in this study, we have introduced the EF for wheat, previously absent in the calculation manual. Additionally, the air pollutant calculation manual presents the EF of air pollutants as one value, but in this study, EF values corresponding to 2.5% and 97.5% were presented in consideration of the distribution of experimental values as shown in EMEP/EEA data.

  • Cultivation and Characteristic Methods for DUS Test New Varieties of Actinidia arguta -Based on the Process of Writing the Manual-

    Mi-Yun An, Ro-Young Lee, Je-Min Park, Byeong-Hoon Yang, Ki-Yoon Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 450-456

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.51
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    The National Forest Seed and Variety Center aims to write a manual for cultivation and characteristic inspection of new seed varieties in Korea, serving dual purposes. The first is the enhancement of the test guidelines, particularly the distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) test, for new seed variety, where research and examination are conducted based on the test guidelines. However, if the crop-specific test guidelines are initially reorganized, the details are unclear. Therefore, it seeks to maintain a written record to prevent confusion when the person in charge is changed. The second is to encourage the development of new varieties. By incorporating general characteristics and cultivation techniques in the manual, it seeks to encourage breeders to develop new varieties. Additionally, it serves as an important chronological record of the creation process, thereby helping future manual authors. This article introduces the current status of new plant variety protection and outlines the significance of creating a manual for cultivation and characterization of Actinidia arguta for screening new varieties.

  • Effects of Application of Rendered Carcass Residue on Greenhouse Gases and Pepper Growth

    Jae-Hyuk Park, Dong-Wook Kim, Se-Won Kang, Ju-Sik Cho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2023 / v.42, no.4, 457-464

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2023.42.4.52
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    The rendering residue generated by rendering disposal, an eco-friendly livestock carcass disposal method, is a useful agricultural resource. Methods for recycling this are being actively researched, and this study investigated the impact of applying rendered residue directly to soil on crop productivity and the agricultural environment. The chemical properties of the rendering residue were examined. The pH, OM, T-N, T-P, CaO, K2O, and MgO content values were 5.47%, 59.8%, 9.22%, 2.96%, 2.16%, 0.51% and 0.10%, respectively. Treatment conditions were divided into control, inorganic fertilizer, and rendering residue, and rendering residue corresponding to 50, 100, and 200% nitrogen content was applied based on the amount of inorganic fertilizer nitrogen input. Greenhouse gases and ammonia were collected during the cultivation period. Rendering residue increased both the yield and growth of peppers and was effective in improving nutrients such as pH and OM of the soil after harvest. However, compared to inorganic fertilizer treatment, it increased emissions of nitrous oxide and methane as well as ammonia. It is judged that the direct agricultural use of rendering residue is difficult, and a utilization method is needed.