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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2022. Vol.41, Iss.3 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Residues and Exposure Assessment of Carbendazim in Chamnamul on Field Trials for Revising Maximum Residue Limit in Korea

    Hee-Ra Chang, Hye-Min Gwak / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 153-157

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.18
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    BACKGROUND:

    The residue dissipation pattern of pesticides for agricultural products during the pre-harvest period after the final application is important to prevent the maximum residue limit (MRL) violations in domestic and export markets. The MRL violations of carbendazim are observed more often in chamnamul by pesticide residue management surveys by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The residue level at the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and the residue dissipation constant from the critical good agricultural practice (cGAP) trials could be estimated to meet the MRL and pose a health risk to consumers.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Chamnamuls were harvested at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days after application of carbendazim in accordance with critical GAP. The residue analysis in chamnanul was performed by HPLC-DAD with the C18 column. The limit of quantitation of carbendazim was 0.04 mg/kg , and the recoveries were 74.4 - 95.8% at the two spiked levels (LOQ and 10LOQ) of carbendazim. The dissipation rates in chamnamul were calculated from the residues at the sampling days by statistical method at a 95% confidence level. The biological half-lives of residual carbendazim in the field trials 1 and 2 were 4.9 and 4.4 days, respectively.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    In this dissipation study, the residue concentrations at the recommended PHI were higher than the established MRL in Korea. Therefore, the MRL is proposed based on the residue data sets from the trials conducted at the same cGAP and the dietary exposure assessment.

  • Soil and Leaf Chemical Properties and Fruit Quality in Kiwifruit Orchard

    Hong Lim Kim, Mock-hee Lee, Kyeong-Ho Chung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 158-166

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.19
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    BACKGROUND:

    Kiwifruit is a fruit tree with relatively small cultivation area in Korea and researches on its soil and physiology are very limited compared to those on cultivar development. Therefore, there are limited information for farmers to cope with the reduction in productivity due to various physiological disorders and premature aging. This study was conducted to investigate the soil and leaf chemical properties, and fruit characteristics, which will be used as basic data for stable kiwifruit orchard soil management.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The soil and leaf chemical properties, and fruit characteristics were investigated for two years in 16 kiwifruit orchards growing ‘Hayward’ (Actinidia deliciosa) in Jeollanam-do and Gyeongsangnamdo. Soil and leaf samples were collected in July and fruit quality was investigated by harvesting fruits about 170 days after full bloom. The average soil chemical properties of kiwi orchards were generally higher than the recommended level, except for pH, and especially, the exchangeable potassium reached about 300% of the recommended level. The proportions of orchards that exceeded the recommended level of soil chemical properties were 63, 31, 100, 69, 94, 88 and 69% for pH, EC, organic content, available phosphate, and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium, respectively. Thirty-three percent of orchards had more than 100 mg/kg of nitrate nitrogen in soil. Available phosphate in soil showed a significantly positive correlation with leaf nitrogen, phosphoric acid and calcium content, but showed a significantly negative correlation with leaf potassium content. The magnesium content in the leaves was significantly correlated with soil pH. The highest fruit weight was observed in about 25 g/kg of leaf nitrogen content which could be attained when plants were grown on the soil containing about 100 mg/kg of nitrate nitrogen content. The average soluble solids content among 16 orchards was 9.58 °Brix at harvest and 13.9 °Brix after ripening, which increased about 45%, and the average fruit weight was about 110 g.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    For fruit quality, fruit soluble solids (sugar compounds) content was significantly correlated with leaf potassium content, fruit hardiness with leaf total nitrate, calcium and magnesium, and fruit titratable acidity with leaf magnesium; however, leaf calcium and magnesium negatively affect the soluble solids contents in fruits.

  • Establishment of a Standard Nitrogen Application Rate for Zoysia matrella Using Growth Responses to Various Fertilization Level

    Young-Sun Kim, Mun-Jin Choi, Jeong-Ho Youn, Geung-Joo Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 167-176

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.20
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    BACKGROUND:

    Nitrogen (N) is an important element for turfgrass (Zoysia matrella) growth; however, standard N application rate for turfgrass is not established yet. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of N application rates on the growth and quality of turfgrass for establishment of standard N application rate.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Treatments were as follows; control (0 N g/m2/month), 1N (1 N g/m2/month), 2N (2 N g/m2/month), 3N (3 N g/m2/month), 4N (4 N g/m2/month), and 5N (5 N g/m2/month). N application improved visual turfgrass quality. Compared with the control, clipping yield of all N treatments increased by 90~194%. The grass shoot weight of 3N, 4N, and 5N treatments increased by 52%, 43%, and 111%, respectively, and the stolon weight of 4N and 5N treatments increased by 412% and 201%, respectively, compared to the control. The N uptake amount and N recovery rate were estimated to be 4.10~6.28 g/m2 and 14~58%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    These results indicate that considering visual quality, clipping yield, N uptake amount, and N recovery, the application rate of 2~3 N g/m2/month was suggested to be suitable for Z. matrella production.

  • Seasonal Variation of Water Quality and Cryptomonads Distribution in Oncheon River

    Tae-Uk Jeong, Sun-Young Jeong, Min-Jeong Kim, Yoo-Jeong Choi, Eun-Jeong Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Dong-Cheol Seo, Jong-Hwan Park / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 177-184

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.21
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    BACKGROUND:

    Recently, the inflow of nonpoint pollutants into rivers caused by rapid urban and industrialization promotes the proliferation of algae, which causes eutrophication of rivers. This study was conducted to evaluate the seasonal variation of water quality characteristics and cryptomonads growth in the Oncheon River.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The water quality and distribution characteristics of cryptomonads in the Oncheon River were investigated monthly for 12 months from January 2021. The cell number of cryptomonads was intensively developed in January-April, and it decreased sharply in the summer with heavy rainfall. In particular, cryptomonads moved to the downstream side of the river depending on the time, and as a result, significant differences were shown for each investigation point. The Korean trophic state index (TsiKO) in Oncheon River was classified as eutrophy all year round, indicating that cryptomonads can grow year-round. Distribution characteristics of cryptomonads in Oncheon River showed high correlations with DO (r=0.678), BOD (r=0.826) and chlorophyll-a (r=0.613) in water.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    In order to reduce cryptomonads in the Oncheon River, it is judged that a complex countermeasure considering the residence time, insolation and precipitation along with water quality factors is required.

  • Evaluation of Growth Characteristics and Lead Uptake of Lettuce under different application levels of Bottom Ash

    Han-Na Cho, Seung-Gyu Lee, So-Hui Kim, Jin-Ju Yun, Jae-Hyuk Park, Ju-Sik Cho, Se-Won Kang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 185-190

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.22
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    BACKGROUND:

    Most of the bottom ash(BA) from wood pellet-based thermal power plants that is not recycled is placed into landfill. BA has a function and structure similar to biochar. Hence, BA is classified as waste, but, it is predicted that BA can be used agricultural utilization.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    To investigate the effect of BA application on lettuce, growth characteristics and Pb contents were examined with BA application levels(0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/L), respectively, in hydroponic cultivation with Pb solution. Irrespective with BA application levels, the length, leaf number and fresh weight of lettuce in BA treatments were increased by 84.3~120, 36.2~39.0, and 215~322%, respectively, compared to the BA-0 treatment. The groups with BA treatments, Pb in the nutrient solution was adsorbed to the BA due to the surface area and functional groups of the BA, and the lettuce growth was maintained more smoothly than in the BA-0 treatment. BA application is considered to have created a favorable environment for lettuce growth in hydroponic cultivation with Pb solution.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Although direct comparing the removal effect of heavy metal between BA and biochar is not present, the BA application in contaminated area suggested a significant meaning on the recycling waste, and increasing potential crop productivity by immobilizing heavy metal.

  • Study on the Lettuce Growth Using Different Water Sources in a Hydroponic System

    Jeong Min Heo, Ga Eun Kim, Jin Hwang Kim, Byeongwook Choi, Sungjong Lee, Byungsun Lee, Eun Hea Jho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 191-198

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.23
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    BACKGROUND:

    Plants can be grown using a culture medium without soil using a hydroponic system. Crop production by the hydroponic system is likely to increase as a means of solving various problems in the agricultural sector such as aging of rural population and climate change. Different water sources can be used to prepare the culture medium used in the hydroponic system. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of different water sources on crop production by the hydroponic system in order to explore the applicability of various water resources.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Lettuce was cultivated by the hydroponic system and three different water sources [tap water (TW), bottled water (BW), and groundwater (GW)] were used to compare the effect of water sources on lettuce growth. The three kinds of waters with a nutrient solution (TW-M, BW-M, GW-M) were also used as the media. After the six-week growth period, the lettuce length and weight, the number of leaves, and the contents of chlorophylls and polyphenols were compared among the different media used. The lettuces did not grow in the waters without the nutrient solution. In the media, the lettuce growth and the contents of chlorophylls were affected by the different water sources used to prepare the media, while the contents of polyphenols were not affected. The absorbed amounts of ions by lettuces, especially Ca and Zn ions, and the dry weight of the harvested lettuces showed a strong positive correlation.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Overall, this study shows that different water sources used for growing lettuce in a hydroponic system can affect lettuce growth. Further studies on the enhancement of crop qualities using different water sources may be required in future studies.

  • Influence of Delaying Winter Pruning on Shoot Growth and Fruit Quality of ‘Fuji’/M.9 Apple Tree

    Hun-Joong Kweon, Dong-Hoon Sagong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 199-205

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.24
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    BACKGROUND:

    The freezing injury by pruning can be reduced by suspending pruning work when severe cold weather (–23 to –49℃) is forecast. Minimum air temperature of the study area, Gunwi region at February 3, 2012 was –21.9℃, and the subzero temperature continued until April 8, 2012. This study was conducted in two years to investigate the effect of delaying winter pruning until full bloom on shoot growth and fruit quality of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The time of pruning were March 26 for dormant, April 3 for bud break, and May 2 for full bloom. The winter pruning at full bloom significantly reduced fruit weight for two years compared with the control (winter pruning at dormant), and shoot growth was reduced only in the following year. There was no significant effect of delaying winter pruning at bud break on soluble solid content, fruit red color, return bloom, and pruning weight for two years compared with the control.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    These results indicated the delaying winter pruning at bud break of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple tree did not offer any disadvantage over comparable dormant pruning, since the fruit quality was not affected. The delayed pruning at full bloom resulted in decreased fruit weight, though shoot growth, fruit quality, and return bloom were not affected by the delayed pruning. So, the delayed pruning should be considered carefully only for the fruit tree orchards in diseases.

  • Improvement of Analytical Method for Propineb Residues in Glycine max (L.) Merrill and Pisum sativum L. using Deproteinization Process

    Hun Ju Ham, Jeong Yoon Choi, Jang Hyun Hur / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 206-216

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.25
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    BACKGROUND:

    Dithiocarbamate fungicide propineb can be analyzed quantitatively by derivatization reaction followed by HPLC/UVD, which has high reproducibility and stability. However, the presence of high protein in soybeans and peas affects the derivatization process resulting in extremely low recoveries. Therefore, this study was conducted to improve the analytical method for analysis of propineb in soybeans and peas by applying a deproteinization process using chloroform-gel method.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The deproteinization process was carried out up to 6 times for soybeans and 5 times for peas using 50 mL chloroform. After 4 times of deproteinization process followed by a derivatization reaction with methyl iodide, the recovery yields of propineb in both pulses were >90%. However, the recovery yield tended to decrease when the deproteinization process was performed more than 5 times. The method limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.04 mg/L. The recovery conducted in triplicate at 10 times and 50 times of the LOQ ranged from 87.2 to 95.0 % with a coefficient of variation <10%.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    This study confirmed that 4 times of deproteinization process using the chloroform-gel method was effective when derivatizing and analyzing dithiocarbamate fungicides in pulses with high protein content. However, depending on the initial protein content present in the pulses, there was a difference in the recovery: the lower the protein content, the higher the recovery rate of propineb. It is expected that the method proposed in this study could be applied to remove high content of protein as analytical interference substance from agricultural samples.

  • Ecogeological Description of Sanyang Gotjawal, Jeju Island, Korea

    Yun-Jae Yi, Dae-Shin Kim, Suk-Hyung Ko, Keun Chul Lee, Jung-Sook Lee, Jong-Shik Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 217-221

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    Gotjawal forest on Jeju Island is characterized by uneven topography that developed as a result of freezing-thawing weathering process and irregular substrates caused by numerous lava-flow collapses. Sanyang Gotjawal, located in southwest of Jeju Island, is a well-developed forest with a long history. In addition to photographs, there is a need for a good way to describe the unique features of Gotjawal, including its geology and vegetation.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    We illustrated the area's natural features using Clip Studio Paint 1.12.0. To reveal its complexity, we separated the vegetation and geological features in the illustrations.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    We drew a cross-section of Gotjawal's unique layers, including lava flows. In addition to an eco-geological approach, we described the dominant vegetation and geological characteristics of the three forest layers (trees, shrubs, and herbs) in Gotjawal.